An evolution of the 2016 QX Sport Inspiration, the QX50 Concept shows how the design of its conceptual forebear could be adapted for a future production model in the world’s fastest-growing vehicle segment. INFINITI’s latest concept confidently articulates the artistic influence of the designer through the brand’s ‘Powerful Elegance’ design language. A ‘cabin-forward’ silhouette combines with taut, muscular lines and flowing surfaces telegraph it as a dynamic and practical SUV.
EV News was recently invited to preview the largest fleet of electric buses in Australia. Built by airport bus operator Carbridge in partnership with Gemiland coachworks and BYD, the new fleet of six battery powered buses are owned by Sydney Airport Corporation Limited as part of a $5 million investment in environmentally friendly ground transportation technology.
With a carrying capacity of 70 passengers, each bus has a range of 500 kilometres, making up to 100 transfer journeys on a single charge. The fleet will provide transportation for over two million travellers, visitors and airport workers who use the Blu Emu shuttle service every year.
The Electric Blu Toro buses, manufactured by a joint venture between BYD & Carbridge, feature custom Gemiland bus-bodies fabricated from aero-grade aluminium for significant weight reduction. The BYD chassis comprises a ZF front axle and a ZF clone rear axle featuring dual 90 kW / 350 Nm water cooled permanent magnet wheel-hub traction motors. A maximum motor shaft speed of 7,500 rpm coupled to the rear wheels via a two stage 17.7 to 1 planetary gear hub provides surprisingly rapid acceleration and a top speed of 70 km/h.
Energy storage is via a 324 kWh BYD iron phosphate battery with the pack split between the forward roof and rear engine compartment zones connected in parallel for a bus voltage of 400 vdc. Dual BYD 40 kW Mennekes AC chargers provide 80 kW fast charging via the dual traction inverters. Currently 6x grid connected charging stations top up the fleet overnight but solar power is the long term plan.
The new electric blu buses will replace the airport’s existing diesel bus fleet servicing the 7 km shuttle route between the T2/T3 terminal precinct and the Blu Emu Car Park.
Not only do electric vehicles cost literally cents per kilometre to drive, (or fractions of a cent per km with roof-top PV) but they also revolutionise car servicing. The maintenance schedule for Chevrolet’s soon to be launched Bolt electric hatchback comprises tire rotation every 12,000 km (7,500 miles) and that’s about it. If a wheel alignment is performed with every new set of tires then rotation can be skipped which means the Bolt requires practically zero maintenance.
Chevrolet does recommend a coolant system flush @ 240,000 km (150,000 miles) and replacing the brake fluid every five years but that’s it. Typical consumable parts like brake pads and rotors can be expected to last in excess of half-a-million km (~300,000 miles)
And that’s only the tip of the iceberg. What goes unsaid is that in EV applications electric motors practically last forever. The international standard for rating motor insulation is based on a half life of 20,000 hours. For every 10c increase in insulation rating life expectancy doubles. For example, the insulation systems of a class H (180c) motor that runs at 150c would lose half it’s mechanical strength after 160,000 hours. Power electronic components such as those found in motor inverters are typically rated at up to 100,000 hours.
To put that into context, with average annual motoring of 15,000 km @ an average speed of 60 km/h, a typical EV motor will comfortably cover a minimum 1.2 million kilometres, or 80 years of maintenance free reliable motoring.
No wonder dealerships hate selling EVs!
While monitoring the 24/7 Internet news cycle it seems not an hour goes by without another ‘news’ story about driverless cars, usually showing someone behind the controls grinning from ear-to-ear with their hands off the steering wheel like they’re riding a roller coaster. The fact that these systems are merely an advanced form of cruise control never seems to penetrate the reality distortion field generated by the hype machine pushing these stories.
Speed regulating cruise control (originally named “Auto-pilot”) was first put into a production car almost 60 years ago. Lane Keeping Assist features were first introduced almost 25 years ago. A Honda version of LKAS that provided 80% of steering torque to keep the car in the lane on highways has been on the market since 2003.
Similarly autonomous cruise control with auto brake features was also first introduced 25 years ago and there are now 15+ auto brands offering these systems. Even cars that park themselves have been on-sale for over a decade. (2003 Toyota Prius) Yet as we’re about to hit 2017 these functions still have enough novelty value that some media types have branded them ‘robot cars’??
Self driving car (SDC) hype really leapt off the Richter scale when Google acquired a startup called 510 systems in 2008. A small team of UC Berkeley students with DARPA Challenge experience built a robotized Toyota Prius called “PriBot” for a TV show pizza delivery stunt.
It’s clear that choosing a Toyota Prius to become the first road legal SDC was a strictly functional decision. The mass market adaption of hybrid and electric vehicle brake regeneration has played a large role in enabling self driving cars. The two features that allow relatively easy implementation of robotic control in production cars are 1) electric power steering 2) brake-by-wire regenerative braking. In conjunction with by-wire throttle, these systems allow direct control of steering, acceleration & moderate braking via low-voltage electronic signals that can be generated in software. This is why all SDC’s are either hybrid or electric cars.
What is less clear is how well self driving cars handle high speed emergency braking situations. Despite hybrids and EVs primarily using regen braking to the extent that brake pads now last the life of the vehicle, anti-lock and stability control functions are still part of the legacy friction brake system that requires human muscle input to be operated. The work-around has been to restrict Google prototype testing speeds to 25 mph (40 km/h) and requiring a safety drivers onboard at all times.
Despite the fact nine US states have passed legislation to allow public road testing of ‘driverless’ cars, by some estimates, Google cars are unable to use about 99% of US roads. Aside from their inability to drive in anything but perfect weather conditions, the cars do not carry the computing horsepower to process all the required data in real-time so the car’s exact route must be extensively mapped. Data from multiple passes by a special sensor vehicle must be pored over, meter by meter, by both computers and humans before any SDC can test a new route. It’s vastly more effort than what’s needed for Google Maps.
While there are half a dozen public ‘trials’ of self-driving cars/shuttles active around the world , they are either on private roads/campuses or if on public roads, they run in very geographically limited areas. None of them are strictly speaking ‘driverless’ as they all have human ‘safety’ drivers.
The original goal for Google’s SDC program, as stated by the “godfather” of self-driving Sebastian Thrun, was to promote safety. A most laudable goal, but is a map localising cruise control really the best solution to reduce 1 million road deaths and 50 million serious injuries every year?
Real world evidence is starting to suggest, maybe not! A long read by Tim Harford published by The Guardian makes the case that too much automation increases driver in-attention to the point that responding to emergency situations becomes more dangerous, a situation known as the automation paradox.
While governments around the world are cracking down on driver distractions like texting while driving, with the UK now suggesting that offenders could face a life sentence, self-driving/auto-pilot systems actively promote in-attention by lulling drivers into a false sense of security.
The fact is that while SDC systems are designed to replace the driver but they do nothing to improve functional vehicle safety. SDC’s still have the same mechanical friction brakes with the same mandatory anti-lock and stability control systems as any other car on the road. A self-driving system has the same three basic controls to operate as a human driver, but introduces new dangers to the driving environment by having to hand over to a human driver, who’s situational awareness may not be up-to-speed, in emergency situations with little notice. Yet with the introduction of electric vehicles the potential is there to develop an augmented digital drive-by-wire control system that can supervise not only human drivers but also algorithmic drivers, bring commercial aviation levels of safety to the automotive world.
Fly-by-wire was developed 50 years ago for aerospace during the Apollo program. Augmented fly-by-wire electronic control systems aid and protect aircraft in flight via ‘control laws‘ that provide flight envelope protection, a human machine interface (HMI) that prevents a pilot from making control commands that would force the aircraft to exceed its structural and aerodynamic operating limits. These augmented HMI systems are standard equipment on commercial aircraft and today’s impressive safety and reliability statistics are a testimony to the advanced technology represented in fly-by-wire digital flight control systems. Yet despite the ever increasing level of electronics in ICE powered vehicles, they are still primarily direct control mechanical systems with some limited power assistance.
The introduction of electric powertrains opens the opportunity for augmented drive-by-wire control via primarily solid-state electric powertrains. Replacing mechanical friction brakes with electromagnetic braking by incorporating an electric motor for each individual wheel, either in-board or in-wheel, establishes a direct digital connection that allows precise control of vehicle dynamics and takes human muscle strength out of the loop. This enables the development of a rules based augmentation control system to compensate for a drivers lack of knowledge and/or skill while providing a ‘guardian angel’ to protect drivers from exceeding a vehicles dynamic limits, or in some cases can assist them in reaching those limits.
In 1992, Daimler-Benz performed a study that utilised its driving simulator in Berlin, which revealed some striking data about simulated panic stops and crashes. In the study, more than 90% of the drivers failed to apply enough pressure to the brakes when faced with emergency situations. This is co-incidentally the same figure the SDC industry often quotes, “some 90% of motor vehicle crashes are caused by human error.”
Based on the Daimler study it seems clear that despite the fact drivers react to emergencies, their lack of training/familiarity with either the braking effort required and/or the capability of the vehicles braking system is the cause of the majority of road accidents. In 1996 Mercedes-Benz introduced yet another extension to hydraulic brakes called Emergency Brake Assist which compensates for 1) human leg muscle strength still being required to operate a modern automobile 2) the "buzzing" feedback and sinking brake pedal during ABS operation.
So does a hybrid brake-by-wire system qualify as an advance that removes human leg muscles from the loop? For moderate brake applications yes, but because brake regeneration is limited by battery charge rates to 50-60 kw max, under emergency braking the car defaults back to the legacy hydraulic friction brake system with it’s plethora of add-on systems like ABS, ESC, EBA, EBD etc that, while power assisted, still relies on leg muscle strength.
I have previously discussed how hydraulic friction brakes on hybrid and electric vehicles are effectively redundant, yet because of regen limits a Google self-driving Toyota Prius would only be able to perform moderate braking under computer control, requiring human leg-muscle input for emergency braking, which seems to defeat the advertised purpose of the program?
A drive-by-wire quad motor electric powertrain could provide a machine to machine (M2M) / human to machine interface (HMI) that would require no more leg effort to execute an emergency stop from any speed than operating a throttle pedal, while also incorporating all mandatory safety features in software to be executed via brake-mode torque vectoring all while keeping the vehicle within it’s dynamic envelope. A drive-by-wire powertrain would provide a platform for map localising algorithms and various 3D sensor hardware to work together in a similar fashion to aircraft auto-pilot and rules based augmented fly-by-wire in commercial aviation.
Drive-by-wire would provide a certifiable advanced computer control system to monitor and step-in to assist drivers in emergency situations. Augmented drive-by-wire could potentially make a car un-crashable, dramatically improving road safety while we’re all waiting the next 10-20-30 years for consumer ready self-driving cars.
BMW Group, Daimler AG, Ford Motor Company and Volkswagen Group with Audi and Porsche have signed a Memorandum of Understanding to create the highest-powered charging network in Europe. The goal is the quick build-up of a sizable number of stations in order to enable long-range travel for battery electric vehicle drivers. This will be an important step towards facilitating mass-market BEV adoption.
The projected ultra-fast high-powered charging network with power levels up to 350 kW will be significantly faster than the most powerful charging system deployed today. The build-up is planned to start in 2017. An initial target of about 400 sites in Europe is planned. By 2020 the customers should have access to thousands of high-powered charging points. The goal is to enable long-distance travel through open-network charging stations along highways and major thoroughfares, which has not been feasible for most BEV drivers to date. The charging experience is expected to evolve to be as convenient as refueling at conventional gas stations.
The network will be based on Combined Charging System (CCS) standard technology. The planned charging infrastructure expands the existing technical standard for AC- and DC charging of electric vehicles to the next level of capacity for DC fast charging with up to 350 kW. BEVs that are engineered to accept this full power of the charge stations can recharge brand-independently in a fraction of the time of today’s BEVs. The network is intended to serve all CCS equipped vehicles to facilitate the BEV adoption in Europe.
Daimler is planning to invest up to €10 billion ($11 billion) in electric vehicles research and development, up from €7 billion announced in June.
"By 2025 we want to develop 10 electric cars based on the same architecture," Thomas Weber told Stuttgarter Zeitung’s Saturday edition.
"For this push we want to invest up to 10 billion euros," he said, adding three of the models will be Smart branded cars and that thanks to larger batteries they will be able to increase their cruising range up to 700 kilometers.
In September, a person familiar with Daimler’s plans said that the car maker plans to roll out at least six electric car models as part of its push to compete with Tesla and Audi.
Separately, Daimler said on Friday that it will continue to sell diesel-powered vehicles in the United States, in contrast to German rival Volkswagen.
"There is currently no decision nor are there considerations to withdraw diesel from the U.S.", a company spokesman said, denying a report from weekly magazine Der Spiegel, which had said the carmaker was considering stopping its sales of such cars in the U.S. next year.
Diesel-powered cars account for less than one percent of the Mercedes brand’s car sales in the U.S. this year, he added.
That compares to a diesel car share of about 5 percent several years ago, Der Spiegel said.
Daimler is conducting an internal investigation of its certification process for diesel exhaust emissions in the United States at the request of the Justice Department, after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency said it would review all light-duty diesel vehicles.
According to Der Spiegel, the potential pullback of diesel cars from the U.S. market is not related to this probe.
Volkswagen said on Tuesday it would drop diesel vehicles in the United States and refocus on sport utility and electric vehicles, in the wake of a damaging diesel emissions cheating scandal.
We’ve all witnessed first-hand how in just two decades the internet has digitised industry after industry to deliver an increasingly zero marginal cost society (Marginal cost is the cost of producing an additional unit of a good or service after fixed costs have been absorbed.)
While I don’t subscribe to the entire zero marginal cost society thesis, it is a good explanation for the effects that have transformed information industries like media, music & software. The same now applies increasingly to energy. While the fixed costs of the harvesting technologies to generate green electricity are decreasing exponentially, the marginal cost of producing renewable energy is near zero. The sun and the wind are free and only need to be captured and stored.
At a recent shareholder meeting, Elon Musk said Tesla’s new solar shingles will cost less than a "normal roof" and the energy would essentially be free. Does this mark the dawn of mass market zero marginal cost mobility? Popular Mechanics recently ran the experiment, powering three electric vehicles with a conventional rooftop PV system. They concluded that buying a rooftop PV system and powering your electric vehicle with it is comparable to prepaying three years worth of gasoline, based on $4/gallon, and never having to pay for it again.
We think the payback time for a retrofitted rooftop PV system can be even shorter! Based on average annual motoring, 15,000 km/year in Australia, a small 1.5 kW PV array (PM used 7.5 kw) could power a typical EV like a Nissan Leaf (114 Wh/km quoted energy consumption) on it’s daily commute for 25+ years at an average cost of < $0.004/km.
Eliminating the $240/month a typical household spends on vehicle fuel, a modest rooftop PV system would pay for itself in just 6 months. Ticking the box to have Tesla tiles fitted to your new house eliminates the payback stage altogether. It is effectively a rooftop perpetual fuel pump where the per kilometre cost is zero from day 1.
Combine Tesla’s solar shingles and EV powertrain which, irrespective of their "infinite Mile" warranty, is expected to last well in-excess of a million miles, (true for all EVs) with the ever growing installed base of rooftop PV systems (25% of households in some Australian states) and we could soon see zero marginal cost mobility becoming reality at internet speed, hammering another couple dozen nails in the coffin of ICE cars.
The new vehicle uses the current Ford autonomous vehicle platform, but ups the processing power with new computer hardware. Electrical controls are closer to production-ready, and adjustments to the sensor technology, including placement, allow the car to better see what’s around it. New LiDAR sensors have a sleeker design and more targeted field of vision, which enables the car to now use just two sensors rather than four, while still getting just as much data.
Ford Debuts Next-Generation Fusion Hybrid Autonomous Development Vehicle originally appeared on Conceptcarz.com on Thu, 29 Dec 2016 20:51:45 EST. Please see our terms for use of feeds.